Internet/IP


More Data has been generated in the last 2 years than in the entire history of Computing. IP is the essence of the internet. It is the method of communicating between devices over the internet. IPv4 is slowly transitioning to IPv6. Internet Access and Ethernet are two key services.

Dedicated Internet Access (DIA)

Dedicated Internet Access means that the bandwidth you pay for is guaranteed for your application hence Dedicated. The original methodology was via T1 facility as shown below.

 

Ethernet

Ethernet is proliferating providing much faster speeds than T1’s and lowering the cost of operations. Speeds up to 10 Gbps are now standard offerings.

Ethernet is a critical technology for the operation of Local Area and Metro Networks. Shown below are the speeds that are currently the standards but 100 Gbps and 1 Terabyte are on the horizon.

How Ethernet Service Physically accesses the Internet

From Global Capacity

 

Shared Internet Access

Shared Internet Access is usually best effort. Most residential cable offers are shared as well as many small business services. The “best effort” services oversubscribe the bandwidth sold compared to the bandwidth available. This can be acceptable at non peak times but may cause significant slowdowns during peak times of day. The biggest benefit is that in theory it helps receive Internet at an affordable price.

Home Network

 

Small Business Network

 

Effects of Oversubscribed Internet Service

At times the ratios can be off and capacity/congestion issues can occur. With “best effort” services this can mean that your (“up to”) 25Mbps service is only operating at 5Mbps in reality.

IP Address

An IP addresses is an exclusive number all information technology devices (Smartphones, Computers, printers) use that provides an unique identifier and allows them the ability to communicate with each other on a computer network.

The standard of communication is called an Internet Protocol standard (IP). IP addresses may either be assigned permanently for an Email server/Business server or a permanent home resident or temporarily, from a pool of available addresses (first come first serve) from your Internet Service Provider.

Domain Name System (DNS): This allows the IP address to be translated to words. It is much easier for us to remember a word than a series of numbers. The same is true for email addresses.

Dynamic IP Address: An IP address that is not static and could change at any time. This IP address is issued to you from a pool of IP addresses allocated by your ISP or DHCP Server. This is for a large number of customers that do not require the same IP Address all the time for a variety of reasons. Your computer will automatically get this number as it logs on to the network and saves you the trouble of having to know details regarding the specific network configurations. This number can be assigned to anyone using a dial-up connection, Wireless and High Speed Internet connections. If you need to run your own email server or web server, it would be best to have a static IP.

Static IP Address: An IP address that is fixed and never changes. This is in contrast to a dynamic IP address which may change at any time. Most ISP's a single static IP or a block of static IP's for a few extra bucks a month.

IP version 4 (IPv4): Currently used by most network devices. However, with more and more computers accessing the internet, IPv4 addresses are running out quickly. Just like in a city, addresses have to be created for new neighborhoods but, if your neighborhood gets too large, you will have to come up with an entire new pool of addresses. IPv4 is limited to 4,294,967,296 addresses. It is a 4 byte, 32 bit system.

IP Version 6 (IPv6): Is The estimated number of unique addresses for IPv6 is 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 or 2^128.

The Internet Society describes several ways to get started deploying IPv6:

• Ensure all networking equipment (including planned purchases) is IPv6 capable; even if you are not deploying IPv6 today, your equipment must be IPv6-ready or you may need to upgrade or re-purchase devices later.

  • Network operators can request IPv6 connectivity from their Internet Service Providers and make sure all their networking equipment supports IPv6. • Content creators, developers, and enterprises can make their own websites and content available over IPv6.
  • Governments can require IPv6 compliance of all contractors and business relationships, and lead by example in deploying IPv6 across all websites and services.
  • Get Help. The Internet Society Deploy360 Programme provides real-world IPv6, DNSSEC, and other deployment information. Deploy360 bridges the gap between the IETF standards process and final adoption of those standards by the global operations community. Deploy360 creates and promotes resources that are easy to understand and quickly actionable by the IT professionals responsible for the implementation of new technologies and standards like IPv6 and DNSSEC.

    OSI Model

    Two versions of the OSI model are below.




    Archives

    Use Cases

    Cable Broadband Comcast

    Use Case

    Dedicated Internet Access

    Use Case

    Internet Essentials Comcast

    Use Case

    Xfinity vs FIOS

    Use Case

    How the Internet works

    Use Case

    Library

    Metro Ethernet Switching

    Library

    Fiber Internet Routing

    Library

    Transatlantic Cable

    Library

    Akamai Edge

    Library

    The OSI Model

    Library

    TCP-IP

    Library

    IP Addresses and Subnetting

    Library

    Bandwidth vs. Throughput

    Library

    Understanding Internet Speeds

    Library

    What & How

    What is MPLS

    What & How

    What are IP Addresses and DNS

    What & How

    How to Access the Internet

    What & How

    How Undersea Cables Work

    What & How

    How Internet Speeds Work

    What & How

    How IP Addresses Work

    What & How

    How the Internet Works

    What & How